2 edition of Temporal scale, cover type and climate effects on surface energy and mass exchange found in the catalog.
Temporal scale, cover type and climate effects on surface energy and mass exchange
John S. Kimball
Written in English
|Statement||by John S. Kimball.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||166 leaves, bound. :|
|Number of Pages||166|
In this study, we used the National Centers for Environmental Prediction monthly sea surface temperature (SST) and surface air temperature (SAT) data during – and the National Center for Atmospheric Research surface wind stress curl data during – to investigate the Japan Sea SST temporal and spatial variabilities and their relations to atmospheric forcing. of snow surface energy and mass balance (Nicolaus et al., ). The diurnal cycle of snow temperature and metamor-phosis strongly affects the surface albedo (Pirazzini, ) and air-snow exchange of chemical components (Frey et al., ). The above calls for more observations on spatial and temporal variability in the snow pack. To respond.
cover on temperature, long-time series of snow cover trends serve as indicators of climate change. Snow cover, with its high albedo and low conductivity, moderates the transfer of energy at the land surface and exerts a significant effect on the land surface water budget. Realistic simulation of snow cover in. Effect of spatial and temporal scale on simulated groundwater recharge in the upper Colorado River basin (USA) coarser spatial and longer temporal scale climate data may be sufficient for simulating maximum daily recharge values for each combination of land-cover type .
Relating spatial and temporal scales of climate and ocean variability to survival of Pacific Northwest Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) RISHI SHARMA Columbia River Inter‐Tribal Fish Commission, NE Oregon St, Suite , Portland, OR , U.S.A. The Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5) considered the influence of cryospheric change on five processes: surface energy budget, water cycle, primary productivity, surface gas exchange and sea-level rise. The IPCC AR5 points out that, in many areas, melting snow is changing hydrological processes.
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The purpose of this research cover type and climate effects on surface energy and mass exchange book to examine the effect of cover type, climate and temporal scale on surface energy and mass exchange calculations in order to provide a framework for the application of micro-climatological models in point to regional scale.
Temporal scale, cover type and climate effects on surface energy and mass exchange Public DepositedAuthor: John S. Kimball. Temporal scale, cover type and climate effects on surface energy and mass exchange. Land use and land cover (LULC) change has been shown to have significant effect on climate through various pathways that modulate land surface temperature and Cited by: Temporal variations of surface energy exchange Net all-wave radiation Q ∗, sensible heat flux Q H and latent heat flux Q E all exhibit a pronounced diurnal cycle throughout the year (Fig.
In addition to their monthly median diurnal patterns (lines, Fig. 6), accumulated energy fluxes (also for day- and night-time) are presented (bars Cited by: Land surface exchanges of energy, water, and CO 2 are the dominant factors affecting near-surface air temperatures, boundary layer CO 2 concentrations, boundary layer development and structure, cloud development, and precipitation.
In the case of energy budgets and surface climate, previous work has shown that spatial complexity and temporal variations in land cover generate variations in. Projected climate alterations will produce changes in land-cover patterns at a variety of temporal and spatial scales, although human uses of the land are expected to override many effects.
BOOK REVIEWS SNOW AND CLIMATE: PHYSICAL PROCESSES, SURFACE ENERGY EXCHANGE AND MODELING Richard L. Armstrong and Eric Brun, Eds., $hardbound pp., Cambridge University Press, ISBN T he scientific study of snow and climate has a his-tory going back many decades.
Yet, improving. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OBSERVED CLIMATE VARIABILITY. As discussed in Chapter 3, climate varies naturally on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, and over the past century, the global climate has been gradually e can also be manipulated under controlled experimental conditions to achieve variability at prescribed time scales.
Michael Abraha. Postdoctoral Research Associate, Michigan State University Landscape Ecology & Ecosystem Science (LEES) Google Scholar | Research Gate | [email protected] | Michael's research interest lies in measuring and modeling the physical processes involved in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, with a special focus on energy and mass exchange measurement.
Mountainous areas require appropriate measurement strategies to cover the full spectrum of details concerning the energy exchange at the Earth’s surface and to capture the spatiotemporal distribution of atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic fields over them.
climate, and air quality. A field campaign to measure air mass type and. The spatial scales of the effect of surface temperature (T s) on air temperature (T a) are related to the relative efficiency of surface energy partitioning (specifically between the sensible and anthropogenic heat fluxes) (Chrysoulakis et al., ), the vertical thermal structure and stratification of the atmospheric boundary layer (Kawashima.
Vegetation is a dynamical component of the climate system and affects the physical characteristics of the land surface, which controls the surface energy fluxes and the hydrological cycle (Pielke et alBrovkinPitmanBetts ).
Forests have larger leaf area and roughness length, lower albedo and deeper roots compared to. Both the energy-balance and bulk-aerodynamic approaches are used to determine the bulk-exchange coefficient for transfer of sensible- and latent-heat energy to the melting ice surface from Results from this work advance understanding of how spatial and temporal patterns of surface–atmosphere energy exchange are influenced by heterogeneous landcover, anthropogenic activity, and surface conditions (e.g.
moisture availability) at 10 0 to 10 1 km length‐scales. This information has potential to improve air pollution dispersion. climate, chemistry and meteorology, these models need to consider the effects of canopy coverage and architecture, plant physiology and the physical envir- onment on the exchange rates of energy at the earth's surface.
A wide range of models for calculating canopy evaporation exists (Shuttle- worth, ). A recent study showed that the biophysical impact of land management, such as intensification, can influence surface climate as much as land cover change, even without a change in the land cover type Given the complex processes occurring at local scale, the effect of forests is expected to have high spatial variability even within the same.
Global trends in temporal autocorrelation. The spectral exponent of the global temperature obtained from the climate multimodel mean becomes more negative over.
LAI data in simulations of near-surface climate variability. Introduction The importance of vegetation control on the exchange of energy, mass, and momentum between the land sur-face and the atmosphere has been the focus of several efforts (Betts and Beljaars ; LeMone et al. ; Sellers et al.
; Shuttleworth et al. ; among others). Information on the temporal variability of the surface mass balance on sub-annual time scales is necessary to gain insight into this problem.
There is a lack of detailed information on the surface mass balance. Since it is impossible to distinguish between precipitation and wind-blown snow, the separate components of the surface mass balance.
Deforestation can impact climate on local and global scales by changes in the energy, mass and momentum fluxes between climate subsystems energy reservoirs. Deforestation is also associated with CO 2 emissions, as crops and marginal lands that usually replace trees after land clearing tend to hold less carbon per unit area than forests [11, 12].Climate classification, the formalization of systems that recognize, clarify, and simplify climatic similarities and differences between geographic areas in order to enhance the scientific understanding of climates.
Such classification schemes rely on efforts that sort and group vast amounts of environmental data to uncover patterns between interacting climatic processes.The climate effects of BCD on the TP-climate system are multifold. The atmospheric BCD directly heats the atmosphere, reducing surface-incident solar radiation.
On the other hand, BCD in snow on the TP could reduce the visible snow albedo by changing the surface optical properties (snow-darkening effects), which enhance the surface sensible and.